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Applications in the Government: 

"Data warehouse and Data mining" is a perfect means of preparing the government to face the challenges of the next millennium. 

           Government departments are in the process of a paradigm shift - a transformation in how to better govern at centre, state and district level.  Officials are often forced to do more in less time, complete with the private sector, operate with tighter budget and smaller staffs, and provide better service to the people.  As a result, they are being forced to evaluate their core strengths and weaknesses and find new strategy of doing development activities.  Information technology has served a vital role in the drive to meet these new challenges.  It is no surprise that data warehousing - one of the hottest developments in the IT industry is quickly becoming an integral part of IT strategy. Warehousing and mining could be the most significant advancement in the government computing in the near future. 

         The proven benefits of data warehousing for commercial organisations are clear.  Recent surveys indicate that a large percentage of Fortune 2000 corporations are either planning or have already built large scale data warehouse initiatives, as a means to increase sales, reduce costs and maximise profits.These initiatives will enable sophisticated decision support systems to deliver necessary information throughout organisations and beyond.But the question remains: How will public organisations benefit from jumping on the data warehousing bandwagon?The answer lies in the realisation that information is still through government's largest asset and undertapped for its full potentials.  

          Both private and public organisations face the reality that resources are limited.Capital assets are scarce and will only continue to be so, and rightsizing and downsizing results in limited human resources.As these resources decline and organisations continue to amass large amounts of data - information that often holds the key to more efficient organisational operation.However, government organisations are realising that the means to access this information is still have some issues unresolved. The information exists, but creating smooth enterprise-wide access to these data stores is another matter.

To understand in-depth relevance of the "Data warehouse and Data mining" in the government sector, one must understand the major difference between the objective of a government /public sector undertaking (enterprise) and that of a private sector enterprise.A government/Public Sector enterprise objective is not maximisation of profit solely, but also economic development of the nation (as a long-term goal) and the welfare of the society; where as a private sector enterprise is oriented towards the sole objective of maximisation of profit.But even, if the objective of these two exclusive categories of enterprises are entirely different, they share some features: 

  *   To generate & process the latest, timely and update information to create an information/ knowledge base. 

  *   Allocation of limited resources (of the nation and/or enterprise) to meet the above objective. 

               Typically, environment in the government is such that all development sectors, (have direct or indirect impact on each other and are inter-linked) for example, health has implications for productivity.Investment in education eventually leads to higher standards of nutrition and family planning.Investment in the fertiliser sector increases agriculture productivity.However, the resources are limited, thus, it may result in lower productivity in other sectors.One needs to study and describe these links to achieve the common objective of national development.Moreover, to evaluate any scenario in advance, for planning and decision making, typically one need to develop a data warehouse corresponding to economic, production, national accounts, demography, agriculture, energy, health, education, nutrition, environment etc.In short, one needs to develop local and global data warehouse depending upon the needs, to strengthen the decision making.Broadly, it provides capability of moving from "Planning in isolation to planning following Integrated Approach". 

           Though, DW & DM is being used effectively by large sales, services and marketing organisation for activities such as data base marketing; segmentation and consumer management.There are a large number of applications in the government both at centre, state as well as attached organisations. 

Some of the major application areas includes: development of local and global Data warehouse from the following data bases/data marts depending upon the key objective(s). 

A.     Data Warehouse and "Data mining" 

  *   Ministry of Agriculture : 

Production; Consumption; Agricultural Marketing; Fertiliser Consumption; Seeds; Prices (wholesales & retail); Technology; Agricultural census; Marketing region(s); Live stock; Crops; Agricultural credit; Plant Protection; Watershed; Area under Productions yields; Land use statistics; Finance & Budget etc. 

  *   Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas: 

Marking; Finance; Personnel; Pricing; Import; Crude & Product Production; Sale - from Oil Corporations (IOC, BPCL, HPCL, & other); Marketing Division of Ministry of P&NG. 

  *   Department of Tourism: 

Foreign Tourist Arrival System (FTAS); Customer preference/behaviour Data base; Tourism & Product Development Information; Foreign Exchange earning; Employment Opportunities; Manpower & Training; Marketing Research; Publicity; Hotel Classification System; Travel & Tour Operators data base. 

  *   Ministry of Rural Development : 

Below Poverty line; DRDA; Drinking Water; Rural Population - census; Rural Development scheme of the state & Central govt.; per capital income - Rural, Urban; 

  *   Ministry of Health & Family Welfare: 

Health & Family Welfare MIS; Community needs Assessment Approach: Immunisation (mother & child health); External Aid monitoring; National Programme for Control of Blindness (NPCB); National Leproscapy Eradication (NLEP); National Malaria Eradication (NMEP); National Aids Control; Indian System of Medicine & Homeopathy (plants, herbs, medicines etc.); Drug policy; Health law; Morbadity & Motility pattern; Medical Record System (Hospital); Stores; Medical & Para medical manpower; NGO data base; Emergency Medical Relief; Health Education; census etc. 

  *   Ministry of Energy : 

CEA; MOC; MOP&NG; DC&PC; Power Plants; Non-conventional energy; 

  *   Planning Commission: 

State Plans (All sectors); Labour; Health; Education; Trade; Industry; Annual Budget; Five Year Plans; State Plan Project; Rural Development; Energy including Non-conventional. 

  *   Department of Programme Implementation:  

Central Sector Projects costing Rs.20 crores & above; 

  *   Ministry of Commerce: 

Import & Export (Trade); E-Commerce; Exports & Imports data bank (8 digit HSCODE); Foreign Trade of India (Principal Commodities and counties); Trade Policy; Balance of Payment; World Price monitoring system; Provisional Estimates of Import & Export. 

  *   Deptt. of Revenue : 

Customs & Central Excise; Income Tax; Commercial Taxes; 

  *Deptt. of Economic Affairs : 

External Assisted Projects in the various central govt. ministries/deptts.; Budget Expenditure; Annual Economic Survey(s). 

  *   Ministry of Welfare: 

Welfare Schemes data bases; Programmes for Weaker sections of society; NGO - for Welfare Projects/Schemes; 

  *   Ministry of Shipping & Transport: 

Shipping Information System; Shipping Tonnage Information System; Chartering Information System; Transport Statistics; 

  *   Audit & Accounts: 

Govt. Accounts Data base; 

*  Ministry of Railways; Deptt. of Coal; Department of Posts; Department of Telecommunication; Ministry of Labour; Ministry of Civil Supplies; Ministry of Education; 

  *  Public Utilities Departments: 

CPWD; State Vidyut Board; State Development Authority;  MTNL; Police Department; Sales Tax; Accident Tribunals; Hospitals;

B. Data Warehouse and "Text Mining" 

  *   Human Rights Commission 

  *   MRTPC 

  * Supreme Court & High Court Judgement Cases 

  *   Parliamentary question - answers and Debate Information  

  *   Patent Information 

  *Public Grievances 

  *   Department of Welfare 

  *Land Records 

  *Public Interface Departments: 

Passport; Licensing Authority; Ration Card 

In general, for the government departments, the data base generated, updated and maintained by the corresponding public sector undertaking or attached organisation, will act as a Data Mart (or a Local warehouse), to the global warehouse to be generated and maintained in the corresponding central govt. ministry/deptt.  Similar is true for the state govt. deptts.  Typically, for any state planning deptt. or even for planning commission, the global data warehouse in the central ministry will act as a local data warehouse and the data warehouse to be generated, maintained at the planning commission will act more as a "Super data warehouse". 



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